Category Archives: Fashion illustrations

Image from page 104 of “Wild wings; adventures of a camera-hunter among the larger wild birds of North America on sea and land” (1905)

Identifier: wildwingsadventu00jobh
Title: Wild wings; adventures of a camera-hunter among the larger wild birds of North America on sea and land
Year: 1905 (1900s)
Authors: Job, Herbert Keightley, 1864-1933
Subjects: Birds Photography of birds
Publisher: Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin & company, London, Archibald Constable
Contributing Library: American Museum of Natural History Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Biodiversity Heritage Library

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umber of hopefulsnap-shots to my credit. Then we landed on the northern side,running the boat ujo into a sort of little bayou. Over usarched the tangled branches of the mangroves, which grewout into the water from the low, muddy shore. Every stepwas attended with alarm and confusion. The trees, not overabout thirty feet high anywhere, were filled with nests inalmost every crotch. The owners scrambled away, squawk-ing in their fright, — Louisiana Herons, White Ibises, andAnhingas, at this point. Young herons seemed to be every-where, pretty well grown, and were climbing and flutteringfrom branch to branch. The first nest that I especially noticed, close to the boat,and only ten feet above the water, held four young Anhingas,perhaps half-grown, clad in suits of bul?-colored down, withsome dark feathers sprouting on the wings. It was a finesubject for the camera, and I proceeded to climb a neighbor-ing tree. As I did so, one of the youngsters dropped head- THE GREAT CUTHBERT ROOKERY 69

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YOUNG ANHINGAS. THE COVETED OPPORTUNITY long to the water beneath, and disappeared. I could seeit swimming off below the surface. Another climbed out ofthe nest among the branches. But the other two stayedand let me drive my screw-bolt into a limb, and set upthe camera. One bird kept perfectly still, but the otherexpended its energv in darting its neck back and forth atme in serpent fashion, and without cessation, an annoying 70 WILD WINGS action, as the nest was shaded, and required an exposure ofat least a second, even with wide-open lens. It was quitea while before I secured the coveted opportunity, and couldproceed to photograph another brood of young Anhingasjust beyond. A few steps brought us to the west side of the island, wherethe White Ibises were nesting by hundreds in an area ofrather low mangroves growing out of the water. Everymovement on our part caused an uproar of croaking notesand beating of wings. Especially ominous to them was thesnapping of a twig, possibly suggest

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Tagged: , bookid:wildwingsadventu00jobh , bookyear:1905 , bookdecade:1900 , bookcentury:1900 , bookauthor:Job__Herbert_Keightley__1864_1933 , booksubject:Birds , booksubject:Photography_of_birds , bookpublisher:Boston_and_New_York__Houghton__Mifflin___company__London__Archibald_Constable , bookcontributor:American_Museum_of_Natural_History_Library , booksponsor:Biodiversity_Heritage_Library , bookleafnumber:104 , bookcollection:biodiversity , bookcollection:americanmuseumnaturalhistory , bookcollection:americana , BHL Collection , BHL Consortium

Image from page 106 of “Reminiscences of J.L. Toole; related by himself, and chronicled by Joseph Hatton. Illustrated by Alfred Bryan and W.H. Margetson” (1889)

Identifier: reminiscencesofj02tooluoft
Title: Reminiscences of J.L. Toole; related by himself, and chronicled by Joseph Hatton. Illustrated by Alfred Bryan and W.H. Margetson
Year: 1889 (1880s)
Authors: Toole, John Lawrence, 1830-1906 Hatton, Joseph, 1841-1907
Subjects: Toole, John Lawrence, 1830-1906 Actors — Correspondence, reminiscences, etc
Publisher: London Hurst and Blackett
Contributing Library: Robarts – University of Toronto
Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

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d whenLady Fitzboodle, at one of these social functions,as it is the fashion to call tea-parties now-a-days,says, Oh, thank you so much, Mr. Toole, it isso kind of you ; I never go to a theatre, thereforeit is doubly kind of you to favour us in this way ;I need not say I have declined to favour thatidentical ladyship again ; I suppose it is thought-lessness this kind of thing. Call it eccentricity, I said. Well, I dont mind ; there must be all kindsof people to make up the great world, but thereare some kinds one could do without. There is a dear old lady in Glasgow who onlyreads two books, Shakspere and the Bible; andhas never read, she tells me, any other. I alwayscall and talk to her. She has seen Edmund KeanandListon, and all the great actors, and is still as fondof the play as ever ; fresh, bright, and interesting ; OUR TRIP TO THE NORTH. 89 quotes frequently from her two books, the Bibleand Shakspere. A very cheerful, bright playgoer,very different from the lady whom I mentioned

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MR. TOOLE IN THE STEEPLECHASE. in my speech at the Rosebery banquet, whothought I must be a gay man because I went tothe theatre every evening. 90 REMINISCENCES OF J. L. TOOLE. How strangely little the outside worldknows of actors and acting after all ; andhow firmly rooted is the prejudice againstboth ! There is another old lady, who is, infact, a relative of mine, who had been broughtup not to go to theatres ; but after many yearsshe made up her mind to see me act. But inorder to see me under what she considered farmore proper conditions than those which ap-plied to a theatre, she went to see me at theCrystal Palace. She was very much entertained,and wanted to see me in another piece, and shethen came a step nearer to the region of impro-priety ; she came to the theatre at a morningperformance, thinking that that was less wickedthan going in the evening. And mind you, there is a lot of this nonsensegoing on, this compounding with sin, as it were,this bargaining with conscience ; the

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Tagged: , bookid:reminiscencesofj02tooluoft , bookyear:1889 , bookdecade:1880 , bookcentury:1800 , bookauthor:Toole__John_Lawrence__1830_1906 , bookauthor:Hatton__Joseph__1841_1907 , booksubject:Toole__John_Lawrence__1830_1906 , booksubject:Actors____Correspondence__reminiscences__etc , bookpublisher:London_Hurst_and_Blackett , bookcontributor:Robarts___University_of_Toronto , booksponsor:MSN , bookleafnumber:106 , bookcollection:robarts , bookcollection:toronto

Some of my books

Some of my books

Some of my books:
1. InStyle – November 2010 issue
2. Vogue – November 2010 issue
3. The Scientific American – November
2010 issue
4. Oxford Illustrated Dictionary by
Dorling Kindersley
5. Heaven on Earth by Fritz Wenger
6. An Old-fashioned Christmas in
Illustration and Decoration by
Clarence P. Hornung
7. From Mist and Stone (History of the
Celtics and the Vikings) by George
W. Stone
8. Communication in a Changing World
by Bethamy Dobkin and Roger Pace
9. Alice’s Adventures on Wonderland by
Lewis Carroll
10. Royal Education by Peter Gordon
and Denis Lawton
11. How Class Works by Stanley
Aronowitz
12. Easy French Step by Step by Myrna
Bell Rochester
13. The Good Life by Peter Gomes
14. Privilege by Ross Gregory Douthat
15. Endangered Species by Sunni Bloyd
16. The No-Asshole Rule by Robert
Sutton, Ph. D.
17. Clueless in Academe by Gerald
Graff
18. A Short History of the World by John
Morris Roberts
19. The Childless Revolution by
Madelyn Cane
20. The Canterbury Tales
21. Oxford French Dictionary
22. Top 10 London by Roger Williams
and Mary Scott
23. Believe by Richard DeVos and
Charles Paul Conn
24. Tom Brown’s Schooldays by
Thomas Hughes
25. No Limits but the Sky by Hallmark
Gift Books

Posted by Sheena Ricarte on 2011-02-07 18:17:18

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Image from page 160 of “Barye : life and works of Antoine Louis Barye … in memory of an exhibition of his bronzes, paintings, and water-colors, held at New York, in aid of the fund for his monument at Paris” (1889)

Identifier: baryelifeworksof00deka
Title: Barye : life and works of Antoine Louis Barye … in memory of an exhibition of his bronzes, paintings, and water-colors, held at New York, in aid of the fund for his monument at Paris
Year: 1889 (1880s)
Authors: De Kay, Charles, 1848-1935
Subjects: Barye, Antoine-Louis, 1796-1875
Publisher: New York : The Barye Monument Association
Contributing Library: Harold B. Lee Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Brigham Young University

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e to do so would not be art but palaeon-tology. But what he did do on the less artistic side was to advancea step from the combats of wild creatures to the first faint appearanceof the subjection of one beast by another for its own profit. He seemsto have been thinking of man at an epoch so remote that while he wasby no means a monkey, some of the traits now found in the apeshad not been eliminated from his nature. He fashioned perhaps hisboldest and certainly one of his least beautiful groups, the Ape Ridinga Gnu. The gnu is an African creature which recalls on the one hand thecombination of animals found in the art of peoples of Asia Minor andthrough them the Greeks, such as the Centaur, Chimera, Pegasus, Bu-cephalus; and on the other the latest doctrines of evolution; becauseit seems to retain the type of a creature existing in an age when the pres-ent types had not been sundered. Its head is that of an antelope,its horns and feet those of cattle, its mane, body and tail those of a

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d IDEAS OF EVOLUTION SUGGESTED horse. With some likelihood the gnu may be considered the origin ofthe fabled unicorn, which may have been known in Europe only throughprofile drawings that showed but one of its two horns, and that oneapparently jutting from the brow of a slender horse. Barye has seized on this extraordinary figure, partly because its finelegs and flowing tail make it a graceful object, whatever may be thoughtof its head; and on its back he placed an ape in the act of essaying toride. It is a large ape of the chimpanzee variety, which of all the four-handed race is closest to human beings in intelligence. The look ofearnest meditation on the apes face as he attempts this wonderful featrelieves the statuette of any suspicion of the comic. Admirable in itsape-like gravity and signs of thought, the positions of hands and feetare no less characteristic. The long arms reach with ease the tail ofthe gnu behind and a big lock of the mane in front, thus preventing anupset from

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Posted by Internet Archive Book Images on 2014-07-28 12:26:14

Tagged: , bookid:baryelifeworksof00deka , bookyear:1889 , bookdecade:1880 , bookcentury:1800 , bookauthor:De_Kay__Charles__1848_1935 , booksubject:Barye__Antoine_Louis__1796_1875 , bookpublisher:New_York___The_Barye_Monument_Association , bookcontributor:Harold_B__Lee_Library , booksponsor:Brigham_Young_University , bookleafnumber:160 , bookcollection:brigham_young_university , bookcollection:americana

Image from page 307 of “The digressions of V. : written for his own fun and that of his friends / by Elihu Vedder ; containing the quaint legends of his infancy, an account of his stay in Florence, the garden of lost opportunities, return home on the trac

Identifier: digvwr00vedd
Title: The digressions of V. : written for his own fun and that of his friends / by Elihu Vedder ; containing the quaint legends of his infancy, an account of his stay in Florence, the garden of lost opportunities, return home on the track of Columbus, his struggle in New York in war-time coinciding with that of the nation, his prolonged stay in Rome, and likewise his prattlings upon art, tamperings with literature, struggles with verse, and many other things, being a portrait of himself from youth to age ; with many illustrations by the author.
Year: 1910 (1910s)
Authors: Vedder, Elihu
Subjects: American Art
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Company
Contributing Library: Whitney Museum of American Art, Frances Mulhall Achilles Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Metropolitan New York Library Council – METRO

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eat. I thought it must be pie, but it was not so. Noteven coffee; but we found at a neighbouring Turner a bag ofcoffee that had lain there some years, and verified what I hadheard — that coffee does improve with age. We bought sugar,but I did not dare to scandalize the good widow by using it freelyas was my habit of doing; though Bicknell, not so considerate,told her that when in town I would not think of drinking my cupof coffee until the spoon stood up in the sugar. After settling in our new quarters, I found in the barn an oldpail and some firewood, and made a careful study which I cherishas one of what I call my prize studies. Then one day I found adear little girl, barefooted, wearing a quaint cap, and feedingsome motherless chickens. I have been told of an English artist,evidently by some one who ridiculed the literary in Art, that,going into the artists studio one day, he asked, What do you callthat picture on the easel?—Thats just it, said the artist, ART AND BUSINESS 271

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I dont know, for I have nt found my quotation yet. I wasmore lucky; I had both subject and title, and painted the pictureand called it The Motherless. You see, she was an orphan,and the chickens had no mother either, — really very touching.But it was a good little picture all the same. It was bought bya Mr. Cousins, well-known man in New York. Now had I been wise I should have gone on painting Mother-lesses, until even- refined home had one of my little pictures, andI should have had a villa on the Hudson. You can all rememberthe time when Freres charming little pictures were the fashion— when few could escape them. Well, they all represented alittle boy, probably an orphan, seated on a cold stone door-step,feeding himself out of a bowl with a large wooden spoon. Thereseems to be something fundamentals touching about that stonestep and the little boy and the big spoon. My little picture hadthe true ring, and — had I only been wise — who knows ? Allthat about Maine only alludes

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Tagged: , bookid:digvwr00vedd , bookyear:1910 , bookdecade:1910 , bookcentury:1900 , bookauthor:Vedder__Elihu , booksubject:American_Art , bookpublisher:Houghton_Mifflin_Company , bookcontributor:Whitney_Museum_of_American_Art__Frances_Mulhall_Achilles_Library , booksponsor:Metropolitan_New_York_Library_Council___METRO , bookleafnumber:307 , bookcollection:whitneymuseum , bookcollection:artresources , bookcollection:americana

Sexy

Sexy

Atenção: mais um passo-a-passo. Passo 1 – As referências e os roughs. / Attention: another step-by-step. Step 1 – Research and roughs.

Posted by Lady Guedes on 2009-05-13 13:51:11

Tagged: , Fernanda Guedes , illustration , Fashion Illustration , fashion , sketch , sketchbook , roughs , research , style , magazine , View

Image from page 63 of “A history of painting in north Italy; Venice, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Ferrara, Millan, Friuli, Brescia, from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century” (1871)

Identifier: historyofpaintin01crow
Title: A history of painting in north Italy; Venice, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Ferrara, Millan, Friuli, Brescia, from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century
Year: 1871 (1870s)
Authors: Crowe, J. A. (Joseph Archer), 1825-1896 Cavalcaselle, G. B. (Giovanni Battista), 1820-1897
Subjects: Painting Painting, Gothic Painting, Renaissance
Publisher: London, J. Murray
Contributing Library: Harold B. Lee Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Brigham Young University

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tion as it stands is repainted, butHoschini already notes (Kic. Min.Sest. della Crocc, p. 49) that the piece was done in 1161, and stoodin the cai)pella Morosini, or chapter-house of Sant Andrea. Zanetti sawit in the same place, and also givesthe inscription in full (Pittura Ve-nez. ub. sup. p. 24). The subjectis the Virgin enthroned (blue mantlenew), adoring with joined handsthe infant, who sleeps recumbenton her lap. In the side niches SBartholomew (blue tunic and redI mantle renewed), S*^ John Baptist,! S Anthony of Padua,, and S^ Peter.See the engraving in Zanotto Pinac.deir Acad. Ven. Fasc. 42. and notethe line heads of the Virgin andS^ Anthony as compared with themore antiquated mask of the SBartholomew. – No. 284, National Gal. wood, tem-pera, 3-1 bv 2-1, inscr. OPVS BAR-TO MEI miilNI DE M/RANO,long in the Contarini gallery andlater in the collection of ConteCorniani degl Algarotti at Venice(see Rizzis paper in Atti dellAcademia di Venezia, pp. 43, 51, North Italy Vol, I, p il.

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THE VIRGIN. CHILD, AND SAINTS : an alurpiece by B. Vivarini, in the Naples Mus^ut Chap. III. nAUTOI.OMMKO VIVAKIX: 41 the marble pallor and careful blending of its fleshy andthe lively contrasts wliicli it offers to the rich tints of thedresses. From this time forward Bartolommeo began to identifyhimself more completely with the classicism of the Pa-duan school. He painted an adoring Virgin in the mouldof previous ones for a church at Bari in 1465/ in whichhe betrays the influence of the Squarcionesques, abandon-ing the system of monumental niches for an equallymonumental arrangement of marble throne and steps^enriched with statues of angels and carved ornament,and hung with festoons after the fashion of Mantegna;but whilst he thus commingles Venetian and Paduanelements^ he preserves his OAvn distinct character in theconception, the proportion, and detail of his attendantsaints. He gives a firmer and .more decided accent tohis drawing without losing all his old angularity, and hemaint

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Posted by Internet Archive Book Images on 2014-07-28 02:25:41

Tagged: , bookid:historyofpaintin01crow , bookyear:1871 , bookdecade:1870 , bookcentury:1800 , bookauthor:Crowe__J__A___Joseph_Archer___1825_1896 , bookauthor:Cavalcaselle__G__B___Giovanni_Battista___1820_1897 , booksubject:Painting , booksubject:Painting__Gothic , booksubject:Painting__Renaissance , bookpublisher:London__J__Murray , bookcontributor:Harold_B__Lee_Library , booksponsor:Brigham_Young_University , bookleafnumber:63 , bookcollection:brigham_young_university , bookcollection:americana

Image from page 94 of “Pacific shores from Panama” (1913)

Identifier: pacificshoresfro00peix
Title: Pacific shores from Panama
Year: 1913 (1910s)
Authors: Peixotto, Ernest Clifford, 1869-1940
Subjects: Pacific Coast (South America) — Description and travel Latin America — Description and travel Peru — Description and travel
Publisher: New York : C. Scribner’s sons
Contributing Library: University of California Libraries
Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

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. Severalbrothers in white stood watching him, their shavenheads and intellectual faces (for these Dominicansare of a studious stamp) making an attractive pic-ture for some Vibert or Zamacois against the goldenbackground of parchment-covered books lit by thesunlight that filtered through the leaded windows.There are other monasteries of lesser note, repeti-tions on a smaller scale of these great ones. Of Limas churches, San Pedro makes the richesteffect. It is the fashionable church of the city, andits dark aisles, with their deep-toned paintings set inelaborate gilded frames, their polychrome saints andmartyrs looking out from niches charged with carv-ings that wake the shadows with the glow of theirgolden ornaments, their retablos toned with thesmoke of incense and the dust of years, form a finebackground indeed for the beautiful women that fre-quent it—women whose pallid faces gleam like ivoryfrom beneath the lacy folds of the mantilla or thesombre pleats of the heavy manta. [70]

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Patio of the Torre Tagle Palace, Lima LIMA, CITY OF THE KINGS The palace of the Torre Tagles without doubttakes precedence over all the secular buildings of thecity. Its superb balcones, the finest in the city, wouldalone arrest your attention, or its doorway, the bestexample of the Churrigueresque style that I saw inPeru. You may or you may not like this form ofarchitecture, with its bizarre proportions, its brokenpediments, its general lack of organism, but the merebulk of this entrance, the grandeur of its scale and ab-sence of finicky detail will prepare you for the splen-did court-yard within. This great patio is reachedthrough a deep vestibule where, after the fashion ofSpanish palaces, steps are arranged for mounting anddismounting from horses. The court itself is shaded by a broad projectingbalcony of cedar wood left without paint or varnish,its columns, arches, and balustrades richly carved,and its supporting corbels, elaborate and intricate indetail, ornamented with heads of

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Posted by Internet Archive Book Images on 2014-07-28 02:23:46

Tagged: , bookid:pacificshoresfro00peix , bookyear:1913 , bookdecade:1910 , bookcentury:1900 , bookauthor:Peixotto__Ernest_Clifford__1869_1940 , booksubject:Pacific_Coast__South_America_____Description_and_travel , booksubject:Latin_America____Description_and_travel , booksubject:Peru____Description_and_travel , bookpublisher:New_York___C__Scribner_s_sons , bookcontributor:University_of_California_Libraries , booksponsor:MSN , bookleafnumber:94 , bookcollection:cdl , bookcollection:americana

Image from page 548 of “The Southern States” (1893)

Identifier: southernstates1893balt
Title: The Southern States
Year: 1893 (1890s)
Authors:
Subjects: Agriculture Industries
Publisher: Baltimore, Manufacturers’ Record Pub. Co
Contributing Library: State Library of North Carolina, Government & Heritage Library
Digitizing Sponsor: LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation

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h-day, and father promised that Jim andTan could play with us after twelve, anI promised to ring loud so they couldhear real quick and—hooray ! there theyare now; bet I can reach em first, andoff he ran. The race was a short one, for fie-year-old Winnie, who soon stumbledand fell, but being a philosophical littlemaiden she jumped up and seated her-self on the edge of the trough to waitfor the boys, and think of the SallyLunn mammy had promised them forsupper if they were good—when, Hi,Win ! look behind you, made her start,lose her balance and topple oer intothe cold water. It was an old-fashioned trough, hol-lowed out of a huge poplar log, andWill heartily repented of his thoughtlessprank before the little shiering sisterwas again on dry land. Better eo ter de house an lem 54S WILLER IVANS. 549 mammy dry yer, remarked Tan, asthe crestfallen party looked blankly ateach other. Oh, no, wailed Win, mammys inthe cellar makin pickle, an she said wecouldnt have no cake for supper less

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– l WOULD BE A REAL BOV IF IT WAS NOTFOR MY HAIR. • we were good until mamma an papacame home, an my dwesses are alllocked up—boo-o. Here a bright idea flashed over Will.Say Win, he whispered, would youmind wearing pants? Havent got any, sobbed she. But I have, an if youll hush cryingan steal in the back way, Ill show youhow to put them on. It had been the regret of Wins shorthfe that she was not a boy, and the ideaof playing one for awhile was not at alldisagreable to her, besides no one wouldknow. Mammy was deep in tomatopickle and Sarah Jane, under whosecare she had been placed, had chargedher to be good while she stepped downthe road to see if the wild goose plumswere ripe, and Win knew by experiencehow long that would be. It is a good thing I noticed wheremammy put em, said Will, when theyhad scampered into his room. Here they are, drawing out a small brown linen suit. Ive outgrown them,an reckon mammy was going to fixthem for someone else, but they will fitvery well, if you

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Posted by Internet Archive Book Images on 2014-07-30 07:52:14

Tagged: , bookid:southernstates1893balt , bookyear:1893 , bookdecade:1890 , bookcentury:1800 , booksubject:Agriculture , booksubject:Industries , bookpublisher:Baltimore__Manufacturers__Record_Pub__Co , bookcontributor:State_Library_of_North_Carolina__Government___Heritage_Library , booksponsor:LYRASIS_members_and_Sloan_Foundation , bookleafnumber:548 , bookcollection:statelibrarynorthcarolina , bookcollection:americana

TAMIL ART,TAMIL DRAWINGS,TAMIL TRADITIONAL ART,TAMIL VILLAGE ART,TAMIL HERITAGE ART,TAMIL DRAWINGS,TAMIL TRADITIONAL DRAWING,TAMIL GIRLS,TAMIL LADIES,TAMIL WOMEN,DRAWINGS,ILLUSTRATIONS,SKETCHES – Artist Anikartick,Chennai,Tamil Nadu,India

TAMIL ART,TAMIL DRAWINGS,TAMIL TRADITIONAL ART,TAMIL VILLAGE ART,TAMIL HERITAGE ART,TAMIL DRAWINGS,TAMIL TRADITIONAL DRAWING,TAMIL GIRLS,TAMIL LADIES,TAMIL WOMEN,DRAWINGS,ILLUSTRATIONS,SKETCHES - Artist Anikartick,Chennai,Tamil Nadu,India

Tamil poet Bharathi -A real life hero

The Tamil poet, Maha Kavi Subramaniam Bharathiar, familiarly referred to as Bharathi, has been a real life hero. His extraordinary power was his poetry, his weapon of choice- his pen. He wrote at a time when his country was crying out for reform. Though many may remember him for inspiring his people to seek freedom from alien rule, he also spoke out for the freedom and equality of the Indian woman – his damsel in distress – in a time when they were barely acknowledged for their existence.

The mid 19th century was a time when the Indian woman had absolutely no rights and their relationship with their husbands were close to that of Master and Slave. Women were not thought important enough to pursue studies, as their role was more as the dutiful wife at home.

Bharathi was first among the growing school of Renaissance poets during this period who insisted that the only way for a country to grow was through empowering its women.

"Aanum Pennum nigarrenak kolvathaal

Ariviloanki ivvagayakam thalaikumaam"

Taken from his poem Puthumai Penn (New Woman) the line evokes that "When we realize that man and woman are equal, this world will flourish with knowledge".

Born on December 11, 1882, in the Tamil village of Ettayapuram, Bharathi a Brahmin was recognized for his talent as a poet even at the age of 11. After an early marriage Bharathi curious about the outside world travelled to Kasi in 1898, where the next four years led him discover a nation in tumult and misery under British rule. By the early 1900s Bharathi had fully immersed himself in the nationalist rule and took an active part in the Congress gatherings throughout the country. He also took an avid interest in the world of journalism and the print media of the West. He joined the Swadeshamitran, a Tamil daily as Assistant Editor and later on started his own Tamil weekly Bala Bharatham and also the English newspaper India. He was frequently thrown into prison as a result of his strong views against the British who were suppressing freedom fighters at the time.

From religious hymns to inspiring nationalist anthems and poems shattering without hesitation every social taboo that was held close by conventional South Indians, Bharathi voiced his opinion without hesitation in a lyrical style that has not even been surpassed by literature that followed his period. Among his well-known poetry is Oadi vilayaadu paapaa. While a poem of instruction for children it also hints to all ages on accepting people as human beings and not on their caste or creed.

Jaadhigal illaiyadi paaapaa,
Kulath thaalchi uyarchi sollal paavam paapaa
Neethi uyarntha mathi kalvi
Anbu niraiya udayavargal meloar paapaa

"There is no caste little one. It is a sin to categorise people as high and low caste. Only those who possess justice, intelligence and education and great love are of a high caste"

Thus he included the Tamil woman in his fight for freedom who, in one of his essays he called "Slaves who remain conservative and orthodox" as they were "not permitted to make their own choices".

Woman as a mother was Bharathi’s favourite theme and the book ‘Woman in Modern Tamil Literature’ by Loganayagy Nannithamby says that "Bharati who envisages women as the incarnation of Sakti [Parasakti – the great Goddess or the Mother-Goddess] says in one of his essays on philosophy: As a man, all the female deities you pray to, represent the latent powers of Parasakti hidden in women like your mother, wife, sister and daughter."

Bharati’s idealist views later turned to more down-to-earth, reformist views with the seeping in of Northern influences like the coming of the Brahmins and Puranas, which was slowly deteorating the status of the woman of the South. He argued that if women’s freedom were to be deprived, man would perish along with it and that men were not to monopolize freedom.

Aettayum pengal thoduvadhu theemaiyendren niyirunthavar
Maaynthuvittar
Veetukkullay pennaip pooti vaippoam endra vindai manithar thalai
Kavilnthaaar

"Those who thought that women should not touch books and learn have died! Those surprising people who said that we have to lock women in homes to do their duties, have put their heads down in shame."

His hope for women included a librated free woman who thought independently and used her knowledge, like men, for the betterment of the country. His wife Chellamal Bharati, in her biography of her husband related incidents when she says how her husband put all social barriers to the wind and clung to her arms while walking boldly next to her (Brahmin women were required to walk a few steps behind her husband).

"Nimirntha nannenjum naer konda paarvaiyum
Nilathinil yaarukkum anjaatha nerigalum
Thimirntha gnanach cherukkum iruppadhaal
Semmai maadhargal thirambuvathillaiyaam"

"With upright heart and steadfast look and ideas that are not afraid of anyone in the world- the woman does not falter as she has the delight of wisdom."

This great poet died on September 11, 1921 after being trampled by an Elephant when he went seeking blessings at the temple.

He was thought of as such an outcast at the time that only seven people attended his funeral. But his poetry, which belied his time, caused the birth of new ideas and the emancipation of the status of the woman in India today and remains as inspiration to millions of people around the world.
With regards to marriage, Periyar has stated that it is one of the worst customs in India. He claimed that the marriage principle, briefly, involves the enslavement of a woman by her husband and nothing else. This enslavement is concealed under the cover of marriage rites to deceive the women concerned by giving the wedding the false name of a divine function.[7]

There have been numerous papers in South India reporting how husbands have killed their wives, suspecting immoral behavior. The husband’s suspicion of his wife’s character has often led to murders. Those who believe in the divine dispensation, according to Periyar, do not have the knowledge to ask themselves why marriages conducted according to religious rites and the approval of God end in this fashion.[7]

Periyar further states that the very idea that the only proper thing for women to do is to be slaves of domesticity, bear children and bring them up, is a faulty one. As long as these restrictions are imposed on women, we can be sure that women have to be subservient to men and depend on men for help. If women have to live on terms of equality with men, they must have the liberty, like men, to have the kind of education they like and also to do unhampered, any work suitable to their knowledge, ability and taste.[8]

Furthermore, Periyar objected to terms like "giving of a maid" and "given in marriage". They are, "Sanskrit terms" and treat woman as a thing. He advocated the substitution of the word for marriage taken from the Tirukkual "Valkai thunai" or "life partner".
With marriage comes the expenses. Periyar stated that in our country, and particularly in Hindu society, a marriage is a function causing a lot of difficulties and waste to all people concerned. But those who conduct the marriage function and those who are getting married do not appear to notice the attendant difficulties because they think that social life necessitates wasteful expense and many difficulties and therefore they must necessarily face those inconveniences and hardships.[10]

Wedding feast, jewels, expensive clothes, procession, pandal, dance, music—money is spent on all these to satisfy the vanity of the organizers. Whatever may be the amount of money spent on the wedding and however pompous each of the items may be, the mirth and jollity associated with these are over in two or three days. In a week’s time the prestige and honor connected with these are forgotten.[10] But the wedding expenses leave many families crushed; for many poor families hese expenses leave an enormous burden and the debts remain uncleared for a number of years.[11]

However, if the money intended for the wedding expense is not borrowed and belongs to either of the marriage parties, then that amount could be used by her to bring up her children and to educate them. Such a procedure would be highly beneficial to her
Arranged marriages[edit]
In South Asia we mostly hear of arranged marriages as part of custom, heritage, and religions. Periyar thought that the Aryan wedding methods were barbarous because of the Aryan religion and art: Vedas, Sastras, Puranas, and Epics belong to the barbaric age. He further stated that is the reason why their wedding methods involve the parents giving the girl, prostituting the girl children and some stranger carrying the girl away by force or stealth.[13]

Arranged marriages in general were meant to enable the couple to live together throughout life and derive happiness, satisfaction and a good reputation, even years after the sexual urge and sexual pleasure are forgotten.[14]

But, with the selfish manipulation of this pact, Periyar claimed that women find ‘pleasure’ in slavish marriage because they have been brought up by their parents without education, independence and self-respect and because they have been made to believe that marriage means subordination to males. The inclusion of such slavish women in the group of ‘chaste’ women is another lure to them, leading them to find pleasure in such marriages.

Because a man is also married before he has understood the nature of life, its problems and its pleasures, he is satisfied with the slavish nature of the wife and the sexual pleasure she gives. If he finds any incompatibility, he adapts himself to his partner and the circumstances and puts up with his lot.
Love marriages[edit]
Love marriages, claims Periyar, on the other hand will suit only those who have no ideals in life. Such a wedding gives primacy to sexual union along and it is doubtful if it indicates an agreement between the couple for good life. Sexual compatibility alone does not ensure happy married life; the couple should be able to live together cheerfully. Suitability for life or living together can be determined only if the man and woman get used to the company of each other, and are satisfied with each other. Only then, they can enter into an agreement to live together.[13]

Periyar further states that love marriages can give pleasure only as long as there is lust and the ability to satisfy that lust. If there is no compatibility between the partners in other respects, such marriages end only in the enslavement of women. The lies of such women resemble the lives of bullocks which are tied to a cart, beaten up and made to labor endlessly until they die.[14]

Therefore, there is a proverb stating, "A deeply loving girl is unfit for family life; a suitable life partner is unfit for love." Periyar believed that the agreement between partners to live together will constitute a better marriage than a love marriage
In a leading article of Viduthalai, Periyar states that a self-respect wedding is based on rationalism. Rationalism is based on the individual’s courage. Some may have the courage to conduct it during the time which almanacs indicate as the time of the planet Rahu and that, particularly in the evening. Some others may have just enough daring to avoid the Brahmin priest and his mother tongue – the Sanskrit language.[15] Some may feel nervous about not keeping the traditional lamp burning in broad daylight. Some others may have the rotten thought that conducting a wedding without ‘mangala sutra’ is disgraceful.

Still, the self-respect weddings conducted during the past thirty years have some basic limits. They are: Brahmins and their mantras should be utterly avoided; meaningless rituals, piling mud pots, one on another, having the traditional lamp during day time, ritual smoke – all these should be avoided. Rationalism does not approve of these. Periyar then asks why can’t the government pass an Act that legalizes weddings which avoid the above-mentioned superstitious practices. If all these details cannot be accommodated in the Act, the latter can legalize weddings which don’t have Brahmin priests, the Sanskrit language and the so called holy fire.[16]

Thus, marriages styled as Self-Respect marriages carried a threefold significance: a) replacing the Purohit, b) inter-caste equality, c) man-woman equality. Periyar claimed to have performed Self-Respect marriages unofficially since 1925 and officially since 1928.[17] Self-Respect marriages were legalized in 1967 by the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) Government
On the remarriage of widows, Periyar states that among the atrocities perpetrated by the Hindu male population against women, here we have to consider the treatment meted out to widows alone. If a girl loses her husband, even before knowing anything of worldly pleasures, she is compelled to close her eyes to everything in the world and die broken-hearted. Even in Periyar’s community at the time, there were widowed girls below the age of 13 years. Periyar stated how it is a touching sight to see the parents of those widowed children treating them like untouchables.[19]

He goes on to say that whatever may be the reason for the present state of the Hindu society, my firm belief that the low position given permanently to widows may prove to be the reason for the utter ruin of the Hindu religion and the Hindu society.[20]

If we try to find the reason for such conduct, we will have to conclude that they instinctively feel that women are slaves, subservient to men and that they must be kept under control. That is why these people treat women like animals. They seem to feel that giving freedom to women is equivalent to committing a very serious crime. The result of this attitude is that there is no independence or freedom to one half of the human race. This wicked enslavement of half of the human race is due to the fact that men are physically a little stronger than women. This principle applies to all spheres of life and the weaker are enslaved by the stronger.

If slavery has to be abolished in society, the male arrogance and wickedness which lead to the enslavement of women must be abolished first. Only when this is achieved, the tender sprouts of freedom and equality will register growth.[21]

One of the reasons why Periayr hated Hinduism and the orthodoxy practiced in the name of Hinduism was the practice of child marriage. Many of the girl children who were married before they were ten or twelve years old became widows before they knew the meaning of the word. According to the 1921 All India Census the details of the child widows reported living in the country that time were as follows
1 year baby widows – 497
1 to 2 year child widows – 494
2 to 3 year child widows – 1,257
3 to 4 year child widows – 2,837
4 to 5 year child widows – 6,707
Total number of widows – 11,342
5 to 10 year young widows – 85,037
10 to 15 year young widows – 232,147
15 to 20 year young widows – 396,172
20 to 25 year young widows – 742,820
25 to 30 year young widows – 1,163,720
Total number of widows – 2,631,238[22][23]
Periyar was deeply disturbed when he realized that among the widows in India, 11,892 were little children below 5 years and that young widows below 15 years numbering 232,147 were denied the pleasures of life.[24]

With regards to the re-marriage of widows, Periyar stated that it is the practice of our people to refer to such a wedding as "a widow’s marriage". Such an expression is used only with reference to women and in connection with men. Just as this lady is marrying another husband after the death of the first husband, many men marry again after the death of the first wife. But the second marriage of a man is not referred to as "a widower’s marriage", though that is the proper thing to do.

Periyar himself was a widower. After becoming one, he took a second wife. He claimed that in the ancient days, both men and women in the country had this practice. There were numerous instances in sastras and puranas of women getting married again after the death of their first husband. Periyar further stated that this is not an unusual practice in the rest of the world though it might appear strange for us at the present time. Christian and Muslim women marry again after the death of the first husband. 90 percent of women in Muslim countries get married again soon after the death of the first husband. This may be unusual in certain sections of Indian societies. But it is a common practice in certain other sections of our society which are called very backward communities.[25]

Further, inter-caste marriages and remarriage of widows are on the increase in India. Brahmins oppose these because they are afraid that they cannot exploit the people any more in the name of sastras. For the same reason they oppose the Sharada Act which is necessary for social well-being
Child marriage[edit]
In all the meetings of the non-Brahmins and the Self-Respectors, Periyar condemned child marriages and emphasized the need for educating all girl children and giving right to young widows to get married again.

Periyar has been very much against child marriage and stated that it reflects the cruelty to which innocent girls were subjected by their well-meaning parents. Periyar asked that if these parents can be considered civilized in any sense of the term. There was no other leader other than Periyar who reacted against this practice of child marriage.[24]

Those who supported child marriage were strongly against Periyar’s condemnation of this act. Take for example, the Sharada Act. Those who opposed this Act say that it was against the Sastras to conduct the marriage of a girl after she has attained puberty. They further say that those who conduct such marriages are committing a sin and therefore will go to hell
Periyar claimed that "household duties" have risen out of the foolishness of people and were not natural duties.[28] He went on to say that it was our selfish greed which has multiplied our household work. Nobody need worry that without household work, the women will lose their "chastity". On chastity, Periyar went on to say that it is something that belongs to women and is not a pledge to men. Whatever, chastity is, it was something that belonged to individuals.

In society, it was believed that if people lose their chastity, they will get divine punishment. Others are not going to get that punishment. Referring to the doctrines of institutionalized orthodox religions, he went on to say that men need not to worry themselves that women are committing a sin by not doing household work. Thus, let men realize that women are not slaves and that men are not their masters or guardians. Women should be allowed to develop the competence to protect themselves and their chastity and men need not be their watchdogs. He also believed that it was derogatory for men to play such a role.[citation needed]

It was said by the orthodox[who?] that women will develop diseases if they lose their chastity. The disease that a woman gets affects the husbands also. If we[who?] educate the women, they will develop the capability to keep themselves and their husbands pure. Thus, Periyar stated in the Kudi Arasu for the society to think deeply about taking a decision and do the right thing for their sisters and girl children.[29]

Periyar kindled the thoughts of everybody by also ridiculing the use of the word chastity only with reference to women. (Periyar-Father of Tamil 32) He stated that character is essential for both men and women and that speaking of chastity only with reference to women degraded not merely women but men also. He extended this thought and said that in any sphere of activity, civilized society cannot think of one law for men and another for women. He also said that the way most men treated their women was far worse than the way the upper class people treated the lower class, the way in which rich men treated the poor and the way in which a master treated his slave
On education, Periyar stated that some foolish parents believe that if girls get educated, they will correspond with their secret lovers. That it is a very foolish and mischievous notion. No parent need be anxious about it. If a girl writes a letter, it will only be to a male. We can even now caution men not to read any love letter addressed to them by a woman and, even if they read it, not to reply to it. If men do not listen to this advice, they, as well as the girls who write them must be punished. It will be a hopelessly bad thing, if parents keep their girl children uneducated for this reason.[29]

At a speeched delivered by Periyar at the Prize Distribution function in the Municipal School for Girls at Karungal Palayam, Erode, he stated that girl children should be taught active and energetic exercises like running, high jump, long jump,and wrestling so that they may acquire the strength and courage of men. Their time and energy should not be wasted in light pastimes like Kummi (groups going in a circle, clapping their hands rhythmically) and in Kolatam (striking with sticks rhythmically).

In ancient Tamil literature, poets have stressed the value of education for women. In a famous verse, a poet by the name of Naladiar stated that, "What gives beauty to a woman is not the hair style or the patter of her dress or the saffron on her face but only education".[31] In a verse of Eladhi it states, "Beauty does not lie in the style of wailing or in the charm of a blush but only in the combination of numbers and letters (education).[32]

In a 1960 issue if Viduthalai Periyar stated that "There should be a drastic revolution in the desires and ideals of Indian women. They should equip themselves to do all types of work that men are doing. They should have good domestic life without allowing nature’s obstacles in their own lives. Therefore, there should be a welcome change in the minds of our women. The administrators also most pay special attention to the advancement of women"
Periyar advocated for women to be given weapons to protect themselves in reply to a question put in the Central Legislature. He stated that we have no hope that the state governments will do anything in this sphere because most of the state ministers hold the orthodox belief that women are slavish creatures.[34] Though here and there we[who?] find women also as ministers, they are old-fashioned traditionalists who will say, "We don’t want any kind of freedom. We are perfectly happy with slavery".[33]

In Periyar’s time he explained that ""Indian" women had no self-determination in any sphere of life like education property and marriage. They thought that modern civilization meant dressing themselves like British and American women and adorning themselves. Even our educated women do not entertain any thought that they must enter the police and army departments and learn to pilot airplanes like the women of Russia and Turkey. Just as modern education has made men cowards an book-worms, it has made our women decoratie [sic] dolls and weaklings".[33]

In a leading article written by Periyar in Viduthalai in 1946, he claimed that unless there is a drastic, fundamental and revolutionary change in our[who?] administrative machinery, it is impossible to make our women independent beings.[33]

Periyar goes on to explain that in our country also, there are thousands of women with the courage, competence and desire to work in the police department. Just as girls going to school was considered wonderful and cycle-riding by girls was considered funny, a few years ago, women on police duty may appear to be wonderful or strange for a few years. Then, in course of time, this will be considered natural.[33]

We[who?] need methods that will effect an astounding revolution in the world of women. Until we acquire those methods, we will be moving forward like a tortoise and writing and talking about Drowpath and Sita.[35]

Periyar, in a 1932 article of Kudi Arasu, explained that "women should develop physical strength like men. They must take exercise and get training in the use of weapons. They must acquire the ability to protect themselves when any sex-mad person tries to molest them. They should get the necessary training to join the armey [sic] when need arises and fight the enemy. This is the view of all civilized people. Women also wholeheartedly support this view. When the general view in the world is like this, who can accept the statement of some people that there is no use in giving higher education to women?
Property rights and divorce[edit]
With regards to property rights for women, Periyar stated that there was no difference between men and women. He went on to say that like men, women should have the right to own property and enjoy its benefits. With regards to divorce or separations, he advocated that a woman can lie away from her husband if he is an undesirable person and if he has nay virulent disease. When a woman has to live apart from her husband in these circumstances, she is entitled to maintenance allowance and a claim on the husband’s property. Even if a widow gets remarried, she must be given the right to claim a share of the first husband’s property.[41]

On February 4, 1946, the Central Legislature passed an Act giving the right the Hindu married woman to get from her husband in certain circumstances a separate place to live in and a maintenance allowance. Periyar explained how that it was a useless Act. since it seems that the members of the Hindu Mahasabha and Sanadahnis agitated against the grant of even this right
Dowry[edit]
On the Dowry system practiced widely throughout the Indian sub-continent not only by Hindus but Christians too, Periyar calls it a "serious disease that was spreading fast amongst Tamilians". He went on to state that the disease was also found in its virulent form among the Andhras and the Brahmins of Tamil Nadu. Periyar also argued that if a man with property worth one lakh has three daughters, he has to become a beggar by the time these daughters are married. In the name of dowry, the parents of the young men who marry the three daughters, squeeze the man’s property out of him.[43]

In the 1959 issue of Viduthalai, Periyar stated that, "according to a new legislation, women have the right to a share of the parents’ property. Therefore every girl will definitely get her legitimate share from the parents’ wealth – if the parents are wealth. It is inhuamane [sic] on the part of the parents of a boy to dump on him a girl whom he does not like and to plan to such as much as they can from the property of the girl’s father. There is basically no difference between selling education and love for money and selling one’s chastity for money. ‘Prostitute’ is a germ of contempt for a woman; a boy should not be reduced by his avaricous [sic] parents to get the name, ‘a prostituted boy’ or ‘a boy that has been sold’. A father-in-law who has means, however miserly he may be by nature, will not be indifferent when his daughter suffers out of poverty. Therefore, it is very shameful on the part of the bridegroom’s parents to demand from the bride’s father that at the time of the marriage he should gie jewels worth so many thousands along with so many thousand rupees as dowry and that he should provide the bridegroom with a house and a care. The fact that another party makes such demands at the time of his daughter’s marriage does not justify any parent’s demands at the time of his son’s wedding. All people must realize that both demanding and giving dowry are wrong and they must boldly declare this when occasion arises."[44]

Periyar calls the dowry an evil and exploitative practice depriving tens of thousands of talented and beautiful young women with sound character remaining spinsters without any chance of getting married.
Devadasis[edit]
Among the atrocities the Tamil society committed against women was the practice of keeping some women attached to temples as Devadasis. Dr. Muthulakshmi proposed the resolution at the Madras Legislature that the Devadasi system should be abolished. The Government wanted comments on that from all important people. Periyar in his statement pointed out that the Devadasi system was a disgrace to Hindu religion. The fact that, in the name of a temple or a god, some women are kept as common property is an insult to all the women in the society. He also remarked that the prevalence of this system encouraged immorality among men and thus set the pattern for unprincipled life in many families. This was stoutly opposed in the Assembly by Satyamurthi Iyer, an orthodox Congress member, under the pretext of safeguarding the Hindu traditions. It should be said to the credit of Dr. Muthulakshmi and the leaders like Periyar that the proposal of the Doctor was accepted and a law was enacted against the Devadasi system.[30]

Periyar’s example of the degradation of women in the Devadasi system is explained that "if a man’s physical passion is aroused when his wife is not with him, he immediately goes to a prostitute. Rough stones are planted where cows and bufaloes [sic] graze to facilitate the animals to rub against the stones when they feel like it.[46] Likewise, Devadasis served in temples and in all villages rough stones planted on the borders and they say that these two (employing devadasis and the planting rough stones) are aamong [sic] the 32 dharmas mentioned in the sastras. When we consider why his kindness to the suffering and also the 32 dharmas are all bogus"
Resolutions passed[edit]
As the Self-Respect conference held in Chengalpattu, Tamil Nadu in 1929, the following were among the many resolutions passed with regards for women’s rights:

Women should be given equal right along with men for the family property.
There should be no objection to employing women to any job for which they are qualified.[47]
Schools, particularly schools, should try to employ only women teachers.
At the conference held in Erode in 1930, the same resolutions were passed again reminding the delegates and others that the interest of women was still uppermost in Periyar’s mind. M.R. Jayakar who presided oer the Erode conference was greatly impressed by the progressive views of Periyar and other members. He was particularly happy that the movement included not merely non-Brahmin Hindus but Christians and Muslims too. He pointed out that the Self-Respect movement was more progressive than Congress. Furthermore, at the Virudhnagar conference the women members held a separate conference and passed some resolutions demanding that women should have the right to select their life partners without any consideration of religion or community and that weddings should not involve wasteful expenditure and elaborate ceremonies

Posted by Artist ANIKARTICK ( T.Subbulapuram VASU ) on 2015-04-17 10:46:38

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